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By Antonio Almodovar, Jose Luis Cardoso

A historical past of Portuguese fiscal concept deals the 1st account in English of the improvement of financial inspiration in Portugal. The authors undertake a comparative method of examine how monetary doctrine, theories and guidelines were disseminated and assimilated by way of Portuguese economists in several sessions. They check the effect on Portuguese fiscal considered significant economists similar to Adam Smith, Keynes and Hayek.

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VII). Friedrich List’s position on this same treaty was quite different, since he considered it to be a clear illustration of the difficulties involved in the internal development of a national economy whose infant industry had been annihilated by the competition from English manufactured goods (List 1841: Ch. V). To a certain extent, List’s view reflects the mentality that has always prevailed in Portugal whenever it has been necessary to discuss the scope and possibilities of putting an industrialist economic policy into practice.

POLITICAL AND FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS In the plans and projects for reform put forward by those associated with the Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, one can note the existence of arguments in favour of a greater freedom of action for individual economic agents. Freeing them from the constraints imposed by the state’s excessive power of intervention was seen first and foremost as a means of promoting private interests, but the same arguments also led to an exaltation of the virtues and potentialities of individual human action as the best means for promoting the general welfare of society.

It would therefore be convenient if His Royal Highness were to order an account to be kept of what comes into the kingdom by way of foreign merchandise and the value of this, and the value of the products and merchandise that the foreigners take therefrom, itemised in discriminated fashion, in order to assess the infallible truth of this discourse. (1675: 261) But Ribeiro de Macedo’s strong convictions were based upon a detailed knowledge of the types of product brought into Portugal by the main European nations and upon an interesting qualitative analysis of the habits and consumption patterns of certain sectors of the Portuguese population.

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