By Hector M Patmore
The oracle opposed to the King of Tyre, present in Ezekiel 28.12-19, is a tricky textual content that encouraged assorted interpretations in past due Antiquity. for instance, in keeping with one rabbinic culture the textual content mentioned the 1st guy, Adam, whereas the Church Fathers present in an analogous textual content an outline of the autumn of devil. This booklet reports the rabbinic resources, patristic literature, the Targum, and the traditional translations, and seeks to appreciate the explanations for the various interpretation, the interplay among the exegetical traditions and the groups of interpreters, specifically among Jews and Christians, and the influence the explicit shape and wording of the textual content had at the formation and improvement of every interpretation.
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Extra resources for Adam, Satan, and the King of Tyre: The Interpretation of Ezekiel 28:11-19 in Late Antiquity
Hama the son of Hanina: the Holy One, blessed be He, tied thirteen canopies for him in the Garden of Eden, as it says, You were in Eden, the garden of God, every precious stone was your hedge: carnelian, topaz, and onyx; yellow jasper, beryl, and jasper; sapphire, nophek, and emerald, and gold; [The] handiwork of your drums and your pipes on you. On the day you were created; they were established. (Ezek 28:13). R. Simeon b. Lakish said [there were] eleven [canopies], and our Rabbis say [there were] ten.
This should not surprise us: the Masoretic Text is the text of Rabbinic Judaism. It existed in uniform shape by the end of the 1st century ce,43 and as our manuscript sources for Rabbinic literature are relatively late, any remaining variations may well have been ironed out in the process of transmission. Historical Context Dating rabbinic material is not an easy task. One can sometimes date the final redaction of a text with a modicum of certainty, but dating the actual traditions crystallised within those text is extremely challenging.
34 rabbinic literature 31 When he interpreted Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, what is said? “Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell upon his face, and worshipped Daniel and commanded that they should make offerings of sweet odours unto him” (Dan 2:46). 35 Likewise one finds in the case of Hiram. When he made himself a god, what is written of him? “Because your heart is lifted up, and you have said: I am a god” (Ezek 28:2). ” (Ezek 28:3). ’ What was his fate? ” (Ezek 28:17). 5 In this example the midrash weaves together the tradition of Daniel and Ezekiel via the reference to Daniel that is to be found in Ezekiel 28:3.