Download Advances in biorefineries: Biomass and waste supply chain by Keith W. Waldron PDF

By Keith W. Waldron

This publication offers a entire and systematic reference at the complex biomass restoration and conversion approaches utilized in biorefineries. the 1st a part of the booklet stories advancements in biorefining tactics, by means of a overview of other sorts of biorefinery platform. the second one half the booklet discusses the big variety of extra price items from biorefineries, from biofuel to biolubricants and bioadhesives.

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2 shows how one step change in a process can avoid further fossil resource deletion by recycling waste. But there are smarter ways of using food supply chain waste: this type of co-product is rich in chemical compounds and it is important to take advantage of that resource before using it for energy generation. The food supply chain generates a high amount of waste, even at a pre-consumer stage. Around 89 million tons of food waste is generated every year in the EU-27 (Bio Intelligence Service, 2010).

In addition, when using waste, several criteria need to be considered in order to make sure the feedstock chosen is going to be used over the long term. Volumes available, occurrence in several geographical locations, guaranteeing a regular supply throughout the year, chemical functionalities present, extractables recoverable and their value as well as fitting the feedstock with appropriate green chemical technologies are all important parameters to consider when selecting a waste by-product for valorization.

They are described as follows: 1. 2 kJ/g, which can be demineralized to avoid alkali corrosion during combustion due to the formation of alkali ash. 2. Bio-oil (21 wt%) with a reduced water (1%) and acid content (pH 7) compared to oils obtained by fast pyrolysis at temperature above 350°C, requiring less downstream processing to be used in blends with crude oil for chemical and fuel production. 3. An aqueous solution (36 wt% together with the second aqueous fraction) made of formic acid, formaldehyde, acetic acid and acetaldehyde, all of which represent interesting starting materials for further downstream chemistry.

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