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Other applications The flight deck can benefit in similar ways to the passenger cabins. Besides that, LED modules can be made in complex shapes for use on the aircraft’s flight surfaces without compromising aerodynamics or using up space needed by other systems. Heat management LED modules generate heat during normal operation. One way to manage this heat is an insulated metal circuit board material that transfers heat on the LED/copper side to the aluminium base material via a thin layer of thermally efficient dielectric.

As it passes through the process chamber, the active chemicals for the OLEDs are deposited on the substrate in the correct patterns. This technique is still being developed and so are the flexible substrates. Page 23 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2007 Photonics in lighting and energy applications 4 This chapter describes the use of photonic materials such as LEDs, OLEDs and light pipes in lighting applications, including building illumination, traffic signalling, aircraft and automotive lighting and LCD backlighting.

They do not completely cover a square solar cell module without substantial wastage of refined silicon. This is the most expensive type.  Polycrystalline silicon: large blocks of molten silicon are carefully cooled and solidified. Solar cells made of polycrystalline silicon are cheaper than solar cells made of monocrystalline silicon but they are less efficient.  Ribbon silicon: ribbons of silicon are drawn from a flat thin film of molten silicon. They have a multicrystalline structure. There is less silicon wastage and solar cells made from ribbon silicon are very much cheaper than the other two types, but their efficiency is even lower than for cells made of polycrystalline silicon.

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