By Shyy W., Aono H., Kang C.-k., Liu H.
This can be an incredible ebook for graduate scholars and researchers drawn to the aerodynamics, structural dynamics, and flight dynamics of small birds, bats, and bugs, in addition to of micro air automobiles (MAVs), which current a number of the richest difficulties intersecting technological know-how and engineering. The agility and dazzling flight functionality of common flyers, due to their versatile, deformable wing buildings in addition to to amazing wing, tail, and physique coordination, is especially major. To layout and construct MAVs with functionality equivalent to usual flyers, it's crucial that typical flyers' mixed versatile structural dynamics and aerodynamics are properly understood. the first concentration of this e-book is to deal with the hot advancements in flapping wing aerodynamics. This ebook extends the paintings provided in Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds quantity Flyers (Shyy et al. 2008)
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Flapping Wing Aerodynamics
2 Drag and Power Like an aircraft, a natural flyer has to generate power to produce lift and to overcome drag during the flight. When soaring or gliding without flapping, the flyer produces much of the power required by converting potential energy to kinetic energy, and vice versa. When the flyer flaps, the power is the rate at which work is produced by the flight muscles. For basic aerodynamic concepts discussed in this section, please refer to the standard textbooks such as Anderson  and Shevell .
19. 19 one can compare and correlate relations between species with a pronounced difference in size. For example, the small fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) can be compared to the Boeing 747, which weighs about 500 billion times more. By using scaling analysis, one can predict how a parameter, such as wingspan, varies with another parameter, such as the body mass, for natural flyers in general or specific animal groups. As an illustration, consider the balance between lift (L) and weight (W) during steady-state flight, L=W = 1 ρU 2 SCL .
The wings are rotated and twisted during the backstroke so that the leading edge of the wing remains the same throughout the cycle, but the upper surface of the wing during the forward stroke becomes the lower surface during the backward stroke. 29. As shown, hummingbirds can rotate their shoulder joint enough to flip the wing over on the upstroke. 27. Schematic sketches of the roles of the outer and inner wing (a) and the up- and downstroke (b) for bird flight. The outer wing area is the main source of weight support and thrust generation during the downstroke.