By Dr. Alan Heaton (auth.), Dr. Alan Heaton (eds.)
to the 3rd version Following the good fortune of the 1st variations of this publication during which the middle material has been retained, we now have taken the chance so as to add great new fabric, together with an extra bankruptcy on that almost all very important task of the chemical undefined, learn and improvement. Topical goods corresponding to caliber, defense and environmental concerns additionally obtain improved insurance. The staff of authors for this variation contains either these revising and updating their chapters and a few new ones. The latter's various method of the subject material is mirrored within the new titles: Organisational buildings - a narrative of Evolution (chapter five) and Environmental effect of the Chemical (chapter 9). The bankruptcy on strength keeps its unique name yet assorted procedure of the hot authors is obvious. we now have up to date records and tables anywhere attainable and elevated the index. we are hoping readers locate the short 'pen images' of authors to be attention-grabbing. it really is worthy stressing back that this e-book is designed for use with its significant other quantity - The Chemical undefined, 2d variation, ed. Alan Heaton (referred to as quantity 2) - for a whole advent to the chemical undefined. thank you are as a result of all members and to my spouse pleasure for typing my contributions.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Industrial Chemistry
More recent developments have centred on extracting metals from waste-heaps of old mine workings. When these materials (or tailings) were first co-mined they were discarded because the desired metal ore content was too low to make the extraction economically viable. However over recent years the prices of metals have increased and this, coupled with new processing methods, means that the economics have now become favourable. An example is extraction of copper from an aqueous solution of its nitrate using a selective complexing agent or even using a specific micro-organism which concentrates a particular metal.
Natural gas is also a major petrochemical feedstock. Because it has a similar chemical nature it will be included with oil (petroleum) in subsequent discussions in this chapter. However it is less versatile than petroleum because carbon~arbon bonds have to be built up. 4) and natural gas is far superior to coal as a source of carbon monoxide. Nevertheless, although coal is much more difficult to extract from the ground and handle than fluid hydrocarbons, it will grow in importance as a source of organic chemicals as petroleum and natural gas stocks decrease because of overall world shortage or political starvation (coal is currently the major source of chemicals and hydrocarbon fuels in South Africa).
Polymers (polyesters' CO,H phthalic acid Some uses of primary products derived from coal and oil. SOURCES OF CHEMICALS plant trials and it may be some years before they are suitable for full-scale manufacturing. (c) Incentivesfor change. The principal advantage of oil is that (i) it contains molecules with linked carbon atoms, and (ii) it contains hydrogen already attached to carbon atoms. Other attractions of oil as a source of chemicals are its mobility due to its liquid nature and the scale and efficiency of the established processes for its conversion.